The Federal Republic of Germany
Germany: The Federal Republic of Germany (Deutschland), is located in the center of Western Europe covering an area of 357,021 square kilometers (137,847 square miles), and it is the largest economy in the European Union.
After World War II, Germany was divided into two parts: East Germany and West Germany. And they were reunited in 1990, in 1957 West Germany became a founding member of the European Common Market, which in 1993 became the European Union.
Germany has a national economy that is the largest in the European Union (EU) and the fourth largest in the world after the United States, China and Japan. The German economy owes its competitive strength and global interdependence to a strong export orientation
Germany plays an important role in the global economy as it belongs, after China and the United States. In 2017, the balance of international trade reached a surplus of 345 billion Euros, and the value of exports of German companies (goods and services) was put at 1279 billion euros, while the value of imports was 1034 billion euros.
Political life in the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany is a democratic country. It is political life is founded on democratic values. The political scene is very diverse, where the German “Bundestag” is elected every four years by eligible German citizens who have reached the age of eighteen. And that is in free and secret free and fair elections.
The Bundestag is the German Federal Parliament and the minimum number of members of the Bundestag is 598, and half of them are elected from the lists of parties in different states (the second vote), while the other half is elected by about 299 through the electoral districts (first vote).
Features of the Historical Relations
The Sudanese -German bilateral relations backdated to the direct post-independence era as these relations started since 1958 when Sudan received, at that time, economic and technical assistances from the Federal Germany. The German interests on the Sudan is based on the economic, political and strategic features that Sudan enjoys.
Sudan represents important part for the European countries as it considered strategic crossing between the Arab and African countries through its huge natural resources and potentialities that made it the focuss of western countries, including Germany. The economic characteristic distinguishes relations between the two countries as; Germany is considered one of the biggest industrialized countries that supports Sudan.
The first step of openness towards the Federal Republic of Germany which was visited by the Sudan President, Ibrahim Aboud leading a high-level delegation, during which a number of economic, cultural and military agreements were signed.
In the military field the two sides agreed to establish military factories in Sudan top of which, the Ammunition Factory in Al-Shagara Area, Khartoum, and other factories in the military field. A big numbers of officers were dispatched in the different technical and military fields and armament of the Sudanese Army with modern weapons to replace the old weapons inherited from the British occupation for, example, G3 which gained good reputation among the Sudanese soldiers, at that time, beside a number of military vehicles including the Migaros.
In the education field a big number of doctors, engineers and agricultural veterinaries were sent specialize in their field studies in the German universities and high institutes.
Establishment of Sinnar Power Station on Sinnar Dam by the Federal Republic of Germany which joined the National Electricity in 1962.
Al-Genid Sugar Factory , on the Blue Nile River , in Gezira State and the Al-Qirba Sugar Factory in 1964.
Establishment of Weaving factories in Medani, Port Sudan and Al-Haj Abdalla.
Establishment of Vocational Training Centers in Khartoum, Wad Medani, Obeid, Nyala, Port Sudan and the other towns which were managed by the German teachers and then handed over to the Sudanese teachers .
In the field of roads Germany contributed in the establishment of Port Sudan-Haya High way by the German leading Company of STRABAB.
Establishment of Sudan TV, in Omdurman, Gezira TV AND Atbara TV
Establishment of Economic Cooperation to supervise the economic aid for the developing countries.
The (GTZ) the government German Society for Technical Cooperation, one of the most important organizations through which the German government extend assistances to a number of countries including Sudan. The GTZ sponsors a number of primary health, forests, vocational training and agricultural development projects in the Sudan.
Fred rich Ebert charity organization is, which works in Sudan in the fields of technical, labor and woman training, sponsors intellectual symposiums on stability and development issues.
Germany was one of the four Western countries to recognize Sudan independence. The relation between the two countries affected by the German stance towards the overall political development, in Sudan since 1989, as the German played positive and supportive role for reaching the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA).
The German supportive role showed in the issuance of a decision for writing off Sudan’s debts to Germany, in 1999 including 36 of the least development countries. The political consultations between the two countries indicated that culture will be one of the axes of the German diplomatic work in the coming period and the Goethe Institute reopened after six- year recess. In 2008 the German officials expressed desire over visiting Sudan to update their information and to boost economic cooperation with Sudan.
The German showed different stances towards Darfur Issue in its different stages and the German public opinion sympathized with the victims of the Civil War in Sudan, generally, and in Darfur specially, where, Germany contributed to stop war and support the international efforts to maintain stability in Sudan, because this will maintain stability in the whole region by reducing the illegal immigration, human trafficking and the across-borders crime rates.
The German efforts succeeded to bridge the gap in viewpoints between the ruling party and the representatives of the armed movements in 2018, in Berlin, and the negotiations stopped following the advent of the revolution in Sudan and the downfall of Al-Ingaz Regime, but Germany can exert more efforts to realize peace and stability in Sudan.
Features of Future Partnership
The Sudan economy needs comprehensive modernization in all sectors, top of which, energy, air and road transport, agriculture and industry. The German companies are expected to implement more projects in the fields of consultancy, technologies and the rehabilitation of the requested efficiencies.
The recent easing of international sanctions imposed on Sudan through lifting the ban on medical equipment and allowing of limited bank dealings encouraged the foreign and German companies to return to explore job opportunities in the Sudanese markets.
Numbers of economic agreements were signed in the presence of 130 of the representatives of the companies and the Sudanese concerned circles in the activities of the 3th Sudanese –German Economic Forum held in Berlin, in 2016.
The top priority in the economic development focused on the promotion the infrastructures, especially, the railways and the power generation. The German companies played outstanding role in this connection, for example, the German Company (Dornier) supervised the establishment of the railway line linking Khartoum, the capital to Port Sudan Port on the Red Sea. The German presence is appreciated by the Sudanese people. The Director of the Sudan Railways told one of the German TV stations that the German companies are famous for its distinguished constructions and technology.
The German Ambassador to Sudan affirmed his country’s support to the development projects in Sudan to meet the Sudanese demands in this connection and the Director of the German Agency for Development assured the agency’s desire to strengthening cooperation in development fields.
Cooperation in the Field of combating illegal immigration
Sudan and Germany maintain good relations in different fields including the understanding concerning the illegal immigration and combat of crimes, where, a delegation representing the Interior Ministry in 2016 paid a visit to Berlin during which the delegation held talks with the German police on transfer of technology,